When a couple come to ProcreaTec, one of the first required tests is a sperm analysis. The parameters that are assessed are: the concentration, the morphology and the mobility of the sperm. Depending on the values obtained in the sperm analysis, along with the rest of the tests, the type of treatment required can be determined in each case.
Sperm Analysis Diagnosis
The World Health Organization has established the parameters that determine sperm quality. The following types of sperm can be found:
- Oligospermia or oligozoospermia:
Low sperm concentration (<15 million sperm/ ml)
The sperm has reduced mobility, the normal parameter being equal to or more than 40 million sperm/mm and equal to or more than 32% sperm with progressive mobility.
Sperm with a lower than normal morphology (<4% normally shaped sperm)
- Analyzing the totality of tests prescribed in a multidisciplinary way:
When the results of the sperm analysis, the women’s results, and any other tests the couple has undergone are in, the professionals at the clinic will be able to recommend the best treatment to achieve pregnancy.
ICSI or Intracytoplasmatic Sperm Injection
If we have a sperm analysis with a diagnosis of oligospermia or astenozoospermia or even both (oligoasternozoospermia) the spem cannot be used for Artificial Insemination (IUI) or even conventional In vitro Fertilization (conventional IVF).
In these cases Intracytoplasmatic Sperm Injection or ICSI must be used. With ICSI, the parameters of mobility and concentration are not as important as in Artificial Insemination and conventional In Vitro Fertilization because the sperm does not directly fertilize the egg. The embryologist intervenes by selecting the sperm that morphologically has the best chance of fertilizing the egg.
MACS or Magnetic-Activated Cell Storing is a technique that has been used for over 25 years in different fields of medicine. It permits us to select the best sperm with the greatest for Assisted Reproduction treatments. The MACS technique separates normal sperm from sperm that are showing signs of programmed cell death or apoptosis in a sperm sample.
This technique is indicated in the following cases:
– High fragmentation rate of the DNA in the sperm
– Repeated pregnancy loss
– Implatation failures
– Poor embryo quality in previous cycles.
Sperm washing is used to avoid passing any infectious disease to the baby when the father has one, such as HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C.
This technique has a high success rate because between 95-98% of all samples processed are virus free.
Once a healthy sample has been obtained, an Artificial Insemination or an In vitro Fertilization may be performed.
Testicular Biopsy or TESA
TESA is an aspiration or a testicular biopsy, performed before an IVF cycle, to look for live sperm in men who do not have sperm in the ejaculate (azoospermic men). Azoospermia affects 1% of the male population. The live sperm found in the testicle are either used at the moment of extraction to fertilize eggs or are frozen and used later in an IVF/ICSI cycle.